Knee

Knee fractures include fractures of: Patella: accounts for 1% of all fractures, most common in ages 20-50. Femoral condyles: these usually fracture when the knee is stressed. Tibial eminence: caused by accidents, such as a blow to the proximal tibia when the knee is flexed, or if the knee is hyperextended during an accident.
Knee arthroscopy is a surgical technique that can diagnose and treat problems in the knee joint. During the procedure, your surgeon will make a very small incision and insert a tiny camera — called an arthroscope — into your knee. This allows them to view the inside of the joint on a screen.
Meniscal tear is one of the most frequently occurring cartilage injuries of the knee. … It’s a piece of cartilage in your knee that cushions and stabilizes the joint. It protects the bones from wear and tear. But all it takes is a good twist of the knee to tear the meniscus.
Anterior cruciate ligament injury is when the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is either stretched, partially torn, or completely torn.[1] The most common injury is a complete tear. Symptoms include pain, a popping sound during injury, instability of the knee, and joint swelling. Swelling generally appears within a couple of hours In approximately 50% of cases, other structures of the knee such as surrounding ligaments, cartilage, or meniscus are damaged.
The definition of a multiligament knee injury is commonly recognised as a tear of at least two of the four major knee ligament structures: the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), the posteromedial corner (PMC) and the posterolateral corner (PLC).
Articular cartilage, most notably that which is found in the knee joint, is generally characterized by very low friction, high wear resistance, and poor regenerative qualities. It is responsible for much of the compressive resistance and load bearing qualities of the knee joint and, without it, walking is painful to impossible. Osteoarthritis is a common condition of cartilage failure that can lead to limited range of motion, bone damage and invariably, pain. There are several different repair options available for cartilage damage or failure.
A patellar dislocation is a knee injury in which the patella (kneecap) slips out of its normal position. Often the knee is partly bent, painful and swollen. The patella is also often felt and seen out of place. Complications may include a patella fracture or arthritis.
High tibial osteotomy is an orthopaedic surgical procedure which aims to correct a varus deformation with compartmental osteoarthritis. It is usually reserved for younger patients who are generally more active.